For students interested in pursuing an academic career path, the NIH Office of Intramural Training & Education (OITE) Careers Blog provides this overview of the US academic system. It provides information on the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. This listing allows you to search by classifications including graduate programs, undergraduate programs, enrollment profile, and more. The article then describes the types of jobs available within various institutions, as well as different classifications of funding.
Read more here.